- 50-100 ft
- > 100 ft
In attached document Missouriensis -- pages 12 and 20 document the finding of Persicaria glabra, and page 18 documents the finding of Hydrocotyle ranunculoides.
Page 18 also documents the occurrence of Hydrocotyle ranunculoides.
The Mingo region is rich with American Civil War history and includes the historic site of The Battle of Mingo Swamp. The refuge is home to over 140 identified archaeological sites. These sites represent all Midwest United States cultural periods from the earliest Paleo-Indian through 20th century Western, a period of about 12,000 years
- Protects biological diverse wetland flora, fauna and/or their habitat
- Supports significant numbers of wetland-dependent fauna, such as water birds or fish
- Rare or unique wetland type within its own biogeographical region. (Meeting this criteria would include, but is not limited to, wetlands with unique hydrology or chemistry that make it rare within its own region)
Located in the upper end of the Lower Mississippi River Valley, Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, at 21,592 acres, is the largest remnant of bottomland hardwoods remaining out of an original 2.5 million acres in the Missouri bootheel. The natural area supports three miles of the Mingo River, 42 species of conservation concern and 8,216 acres of bottomland natural communities that support hundreds of native plant species, and many breeding and migratory birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. The natural area provides habitat for federally listed species, migratory and resident bird species and places for reptiles and amphibians to overwinter. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge contains a 7,730-acre Wilderness Area designated as Wilderness by Congress under the 1964 Wilderness Act to “…protect and preserve the wilderness character…for the use and enjoyment of the American people in a way that will leave these areas unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness.”
Because the Mingo National Wildlife Refuge contains remnants of natural community types once native to southern Missouri and contains unique and ecologically important wildlife habitat, this wetland should be considered a national Wetland of Distinction.
- Maintains ecological connectivity/cohesion
- Recreation (birdwatching, ecotourism)
- Flood storage/mitigation
- Inland Open Fresh Water
- Inland Fresh Shrub Swamp
- Inland Fresh Wooded Swamp
Mingo NWR lies in a basin formed in an ancient, abandoned channel of the Mississippi River. When the Mississippi River shifted east approximately 18,000 years ago, it abandoned its original channel and left behind a basin, now called Mingo Basin. The basin is bordered on the west by the Missouri Ozarks and on the east by a terrace called Crowley's Ridge, a prominent landform in the otherwise flat Mississippi floodplain. The St. Francis River flows from the Ozark Hills into the Advance Lowlands just south and west of the Refuge. When the Mississippi River shifted course, an alluvial fan built up where the St. Francis River entered the lowlands. The alluvial fan, which typically forms at the base of topographic features, acts as a natural levee, slowing drainage through the basin. Several small sand ridges interrupt the otherwise level basin area. The ridges, which vary in shape, may be ancient sand bars deposited by the Mississippi River or sand forced to the surface by earthquakes. The Refuge is in the New Madrid seismic zone, but most of the quakes that have occurred recently are only detectable by sensitive instruments, and there have been no impacts on the Refuge.
The refuge lies in an abandoned channel of the Mississippi River known as the Advance Lowlands, bounded by the limestone bluffs of Crowley’s Ridge to the south and east, and the Ozark Escarpment to the north and west. The St. Francis River flows from the Ozark Hills into the Advance Lowlands just south and west of the refuge. When the Mississippi River shifted course, joining the Ohio River farther north approximately 18,000 years ago, an alluvial fan built up where the St. Francis River entered the lowlands. The Castor River, north and east of the refuge, developed a similar alluvial fan. These alluvial fans act as natural levees, slowing drainage through the basin.
The most extensive soil type is Waverley Silt Loam, with a grayish brown silt loam surface layer and gray silt loam subsoil that is mottled throughout. A poorly drained acidic soil formed under wet conditions and a high water table, it occupies approximately 50 to 60 percent of the refuge. Falaya Silt Loam occupies a small part of the bottom in areas such as Stanley Creek and Lick Creek. It also borders the upland and the channel of Mingo Creek. Falaya soils have brown silt loam surface layers over grayish brown silt loam underlain at about 40 inches by fray silty clay loam. This soil is somewhat poorly drained, acidic, and subject to flooding or ponding. Organic soils occupy 800 to 900 hundred acres in Rockhouse and Monopoly marshes and consist of dark colored soils derived from organic matter. They were formed under wet marshy conditions in some of the lowest elevations.
The cherty soils of the steep slopes and stone outcropping along the west side of the refuge are of the Doniphan series. Doniphan soils have light brown cherty silt loam surface layers and red clay subsoils. The ridgetops above Doniphan cherty silt loam are narrow and undulating and have about three feet of loess deposits. The soil is Union Silt Loam. The moderately well-drained Union soils have dark grayish brown silt loam surface horizons that are underlain by brown silty clay loam subsoils. They have fragipan layers at depths of 2.0 or 3.0 feet. On the moderate slopes of the uplands, especially along Highway 51 north of Puxico, there are deep, well-drained soils developed in thick lows. These soils are Loring Memphis Silt Loams and have brown silt loam surface layers and brown silt loam subsoils